This is a quick one, and easy to answer.
Packages are manually installed via the
dpkg command (Debian Package Management System).
dpkg is the backend to commands like
aptitude, which in turn are the backend for GUI install apps like the Software Center and Synaptic.
There are several options to remove PPAs, or Personal Package Archive, from your system.
For this we will use the unzip command.
Maybe you want to get a read-out of all packages installed on your system. Maybe for review, maybe to put together a new bulk installer. Here's an easy way to do it.
First things first, there are no "quick fixes" other than restoring your system from a backup taken prior to the intrusion, and this has at least two problems.
1. It's difficult to pinpoint when the intrusion happened.
2. It doesn't help you close the "hole" that allowed them to break in last time, nor deal with the consequences of any "data theft" that may also have taken place.
This question keeps being asked repeatedly by the victims of hackers breaking into their web server. The answers very rarely change, but people keep asking the question. I'm not sure why. Perhaps people just don't like the answers they've seen when searching for help, or they can't find someone they trust to give them advice. Or perhaps people read an answer to this question and focus too much on the 5% of why their case is special and different from the answers they can find online and miss the 95% of the question and answer where their case is near enough the same as the one they read online.
A Glue Record is the IP Address of a name server at a domain name registry. Glue Records are core parts of DNS records because they help to resolve DNS servers at a core level. If you would like to change the name servers for a site, you'll have to provide the Glue Records for the new name serves. Without this, a domain name will not work because anyone requiring the DNS information will be stuck in a loop. There is a cyclic dependency of circular referencing. Circular references exist when the name servers for a domain can't be resolved without resolving the domain they're responsible for. So, a Glue Record is an additional A record that allow the DNS client to locate name servers.
I'm an not a fan of firewalls. In fact, I've run most of my systems without one for over a decade. Eventually, I did start to wonder if running a firewall might be worth the hassle of its upkeep; after all many networks run them by default, and your friends and family probably have a firewall running without them even knowing. In trying to decide whether I should do a firewall myself, I got a pros and cons list going and I thought I'd share it here. So here we go.
In order to properly rout packets through your internal network, you have to make sure that both outgoing and incoming packets are properly routed. In this article, we'll help you do just that.
The internet has long had something called DNS (Domain Name Service), which is basically like a phonebook or directory for the internet. When someone calls you, they can look in the yellow pages using their name and find out what the number is and call it.